X-SAMPA

Avy amin'i Wikipedia
Hanketo: Fikarohana, karohy

Ny Extented Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) na Abidy ara-drafipeon'ny fomba fanadihadiam-pitenenana nitarina dia fanovana ny SAMPA noforonin'i, i John C. Wells izay mpampianatra momba ny haifanononana ao amin'ny Anjerimanontolon'i London.[1] Izy io dia natao hampiray ireo abidy SAMPA tsirairay ary mba handrakotra ny Abidy ara-drafipeo iraisam-pirenena (AAI). Ny vokatr'izay dia ny versionan'ny AAI azo soratana amin'ny alalan'ny ASCII 7 bit.


Ny SAMPA dia natao ho fanodinana ny olana izay tsy ahafahana manoratra ireo literan'ny AAI amin'ny fanakaodian-tsoratra. Tetỳ aoriana rehefa zaka na aiza na aiza ny Unicode dia tsy dia nilaina intsony ny rafitra hanehoana ny AAI amin'ny alalan'ny ASCII. Na dia izany aza dia mbola ilaina amin'ny fampidirana AAI tena izy ny X-SAMPA.

Famintinana[hanova | hanova ny fango]

Fanamarihana[hanova | hanova ny fango]

  • Ny eva AAI dia sora-madinika ary manana ny sanda mitovy amin'ny X-SAMPA izy ireo.
  • Ny X-SAMPA dia mampiasa backslash ho tovana manova ahafahana mamorona eva vaovao. Ohatra, 0 dia feo hafa amin'ny \0, ary tsy misy ifandraisana ny feon'ireo eva roa voatonona teo aloha ireo. Mety ho olana ny fampiasana io backslash io satria betskaa ireo rindrankajy mahita izy io ho soratra fanesorana ho an'izay soratra manaraka azy io. Ohatra. Tsy afaka ampiasaina amin'ny EMU ny backslash ka noho izany ianao dia mila manova azy io ho eva hafa (ohatra, ny kintana "*")
  • Manaraka ireo eva ovainy ireo diakritika. Afatsy ~ ho an'ny fanononana an'orona na = ho an'ny famakiana mivanin-teny, ary ` ho an'ny fanononana amin'ny lela miforotra mankany aoriana; ireo diakritika dia ampiaraha amin'ny soratra amin'ny alalan'ny tsipika ambany _.
  • Ny tsipika ambany dia natao hanakaodiana ny bara fampanarahana AAI
  • Ny isa _1 ny _6 dia voatokana ho fanafohezan-tsoratra ho an'ireo fiteny mampiasa haavom-peo

Eva amin'ny zana-tsoratra[hanova | hanova ny fango]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image Examples
a a Xsampa-a.png French dame [dam], Spanish padre ["paD4e]
b b Xsampa-b.png English bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_< ɓ Xsampa-b lessthan.png Sindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
c c Xsampa-c.png Hungarian latyak ["lQcQk]
d d Xsampa-d.png English dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
d` ɖ Xsampa-d'.png Swedish hord [hu:d`]
d_< ɗ Xsampa-d lessthan.png Sindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
e e Xsampa-e.png French ses [se], American English mate [met]
f f Xsampa-f2.png English five [faIv], French femme [fam]
g ɡ Xsampa-g.png English game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
g_< ɠ Xsampa-g lessthan.png Sindhi ɠəro [g_<@ro]
h h Xsampa-h.png English house [haUs]
h\ ɦ Xsampa-hslash.png Czech hrad [h\rat]
i i Xsampa-i.png English be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
j j Xsampa-j2.png English yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j\ ʝ Xsampa-jslash2.png Greek γειά [j\a]
k k Xsampa-k.png English scat [sk{t], Spanish carro ["kar:o]
l l Xsampa-l.png English lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l` ɭ Xsampa-l'.png Svealand Swedish sorl [so:l`]
l\ ɺ Xsampa-lslash.png Japanese rakuten [l\akM_0teN\]
m m Xsampa-m.png English mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
n n Xsampa-n.png English nap [n{p], French non [nO~]
n` ɳ Xsampa-n'.png Swedish hörn [h2:n`]
o o Xsampa-o.png French gros [gRo]
p p Xsampa-p.png English speak [spik], French pose [poz], Spanish perro ["per:o]
p\ ɸ Xsampa-pslash.png Japanese fuku [p\M_0kM]
q q Xsampa-q.png Arabic qasbah ["qQs_Gba]
r r Xsampa-r.png Spanish perro ["per:o]
r` ɽ Xsampa-r'.png
r\ ɹ Xsampa-rslash2.png English red [r\Ed]
r\` ɻ Xsampa-rslash'.png Malayalam വഴി ["v@r\`i]
s s Xsampa-s.png English seem [si:m], French session [se"sjO~]
s` ʂ Xsampa-s'.png Swedish mars [mas`]
s\ ɕ Xsampa-sslash.png Polish świerszcz [s\v'erStS]
t t Xsampa-t.png English stew [stju:], French raté [Ra"te], Spanish tuyo ["tujo]
t` ʈ Xsampa-t'.png Swedish mört [m2t`]
u u Xsampa-u.png English boom [bu:m], Spanish su [su]
v v Xsampa-v.png English vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v\ (or P) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png Dutch west [v\Est]/[PEst]
w w Xsampa-w2.png English west [wEst], French oui [wi]
x x Xsampa-x.png Scots loch [lOx] or [5Ox]; German Buch, Dach; Spanish caja, gestión
x\ ɧ Xsampa-xslash2.png Swedish sjal [x\A:l]
y y Xsampa-y.png French tu [ty] German über ["y:b6]
z z Xsampa-z.png English zoo [zu:], French azote [a"zOt]
z` ʐ Xsampa-z'.png Mandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\ ʑ Xsampa-zslash.png Polish źrebak ["z\rEbak]

Eva amin'ny renisoratra[hanova | hanova ny fango]

X-SAMPA AAI Sary AAI Ohatra
A ɑ Xsampa-A2.png English father ["fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
B β Xsampa-B2.png Spanish lavar [la"Ba4]
B\ ʙ Xsampa-Bslash.png Reminiscent of shivering ("brrr")
C ç Xsampa-C2.png German ich [IC], English human ["Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
D ð Xsampa-D2.png English then [DEn]
E ɛ Xsampa-E2.png French même [mEm], English met [mEt] (RP and Gen.Am.)
F ɱ Xsampa-F.png English emphasis ["EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
G ɣ Xsampa-G2.png Greek γωνία [Go"nia], Danish vælge ["vElG@]
G\ ɢ Xsampa-Gslash.png Inuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_< ʛ Xsampa-Gslash lessthan.png Mam ʛa [G\_<a]
H ɥ Xsampa-H.png French huit [Hit]
H\ ʜ Xsampa-Hslash.png
I ɪ Xsampa-I2.png English kit [kIt]
I\ or ɪ̈ Polish ryba [rI\bA
J ɲ Xsampa-J.png Spanish año ["aJo], English canyon ["k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\ ɟ Xsampa-Jslash.png Hungarian egy [EJ\]
J\_< ʄ Xsampa-Jslash lessthan.png Sindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
K ɬ Xsampa-K2.png Welsh llaw [KaU]
K\ ɮ Xsampa-Kslash.png
L ʎ Xsampa-L2.png Italian famiglia [fa"miLLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar], English million ["mIL@n] (broad transcription uses [-lj-])
L\ ʟ Xsampa-Lslash.png
M ɯ Xsampa-M.png Korean (eu)
M\ ɰ Xsampa-Mslash.png Spanish fuego ["fweM\o]
N ŋ Xsampa-N2.png English thing [TIN]
N\ ɴ Xsampa-Nslash.png Japanese san [saN\]
O ɔ Xsampa-O2.png RP thought [TO:t], American English off [O:f]
O\ ʘ Xsampa-Oslash.png
P (or v\) ʋ Xsampa-Porvslash.png Dutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/
Q ɒ Xsampa-Q.png RP lot [lQt]
R ʁ Xsampa-R2.png German rein [RaIn]
R\ ʀ Xsampa-Rslash.png French roi [R\wa]
S ʃ Xsampa-S2.png English ship [SIp]
T θ Xsampa-T2.png English thin [TIn]
U ʊ Xsampa-U2.png English foot [fUt]
U\ ᵿ or ʊ̈ Xsampa-Uslash.png English euphoria [jU\"fO@r\i@]
V ʌ Xsampa-V.png RP English strut [str\Vt]
W ʍ Xsampa-X.png Scots when [WEn]
X χ Xsampa-x2.png Klallam sχaʔqʷaʔ [sXa?q_wa?]
X\ ħ Xsampa-Xslash.png Arabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
Y ʏ Xsampa-Y2.png German hübsch [hYpS]
Z ʒ Xsampa-Z2.png English vision ["vIZ@n]

Eva hafa[hanova | hanova ny fango]

X-SAMPA IPA IPA image
. . Xsampa-fullstop.png
" ˈ Xsampa-doublequotes.png
% ˌ Xsampa-percentage.png
' (or _j) ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png
: ː Xsampa-colon.png
:\ ˑ Xsampa-colonslash.png
- separator Polish trzy [t-S1] vs. czy [tS1] (affricate)
@ ə Xsampa-at.png
@\ ɘ Xsampa-atslash.png
{ æ Xsampa-leftcurly.png
} ʉ Xsampa-rightcurly.png
1 ɨ Xsampa-1.png
2 ø Xsampa-2.png
3 ɜ Xsampa-3.png
3\ ɞ Xsampa-3slash.png
4 ɾ Xsampa-4.png
5 ɫ Xsampa-l eor5.png
6 ɐ Xsampa-6.png
7 ɤ Xsampa-7.png
8 ɵ Xsampa-8.png
9 œ Xsampa-9.png
& ɶ Xsampa-amper.png
? ʔ Xsampa-questionmark.png
?\ ʕ Xsampa-qmarkslash.png
* Soratra tsy voafaritra. Soratra mpanasaraka
/ indeterminacy in French vowels
< begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)
<\ ʢ Xsampa-lessthanslash.png
> end nonsegmental notation
>\ ʡ Xsampa-greaterthanslash.png
^ Xsampa-hat.png
! Xsampa-exclamation.png
!\ ǃ Xsampa-exclamationslash.png
| | Xsampa-bar.png
|\ ǀ Xsampa-barslash.png
|| Xsampa-doublebar.png
|\|\ ǁ Xsampa-doublebarslash.png
=\ ǂ Xsampa-equalsslash.png
-\ Xsampa-dashslash.png

Diakritika[hanova | hanova ny fango]

X-SAMPA IPA Sary AAI
_"   ̈ Xsampa- doublequotes.png
_+   ̟ Xsampa- plus.png
_-   ̠ Xsampa- minus.png
_/ ̌ Xsampa- slash.png
_0   ̥ Xsampa- 0.png
_< mitefoka anaty (Mampiasa eva manokana ny AAI)
= (or _=)   ̩ Xsampa-equalsor equals.png
_> ʼ Xsampa- greaterthan.png
_?\ ˤ Xsampa- questionslash.png
_\ ̂ Feo midina
_^   ̯ Xsampa- hat.png
_}   ̚ Xsampa- rightcurly.png
` ˞ Xsampa-'rhino.png
~ (or _~)   ̃ Xsampa-tildor tild.png
_A   ̘ Xsampa- A.png
_a   ̺ Xsampa- a2.png
_B   ̏ Xsampa- B.png
_B_L  ᷅ Xsampa- B L.png
_c   ̜ Xsampa- c.png
_d   ̪ Xsampa- d.png
_e   ̴ Xsampa- e.png
<F> Xsampa-ltFgt.png
_F   ̂ Xsampa- F.png
_G ˠ Xsampa- G.png
_H   ́ Xsampa- H.png
_H_T  ᷄ Xsampa- H T.png
_h ʰ Xsampa- h.png
_j (or ') ʲ Xsampa-'or j.png
_k   ̰ Xsampa- k.png
_L   ̀ Xsampa- L.png
_l ˡ Xsampa- l.png
_M   ̄ Xsampa- M.png
_m   ̻ Xsampa- m.png
_N   ̼ Xsampa- N.png
_n Xsampa- n2.png
_O   ̹ Xsampa O.png
_o   ̞ Xsampa- o.png
_q   ̙ Xsampa- q.png
<R> Xsampa-ltRgt.png
_R   ̌ Xsampa- R.png
_R_F  ᷈ Xsampa- R F.png
_r   ̝ Xsampa- r.png
_T   ̋ Xsampa- T.png
_t   ̤ Xsampa- t.png
_v   ̬ Xsampa- v.png
_w ʷ Xsampa- w.png
_X   ̆ Xsampa- X.png
_x   ̽ Xsampa- x.png

Tabilao[hanova | hanova ny fango]

Fônôlôjia[hanova | hanova ny fango]

Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulation → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Manner of articulation ↓ Bilabial Labio‐

dental

Dental Alveolar Post‐

alveolar

Retro‐

flex

Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn‐

geal

Epi‐

glottal

Glottal
Nasal    m    F    n    n`    J    N    N\
Plosive p b p_d b_d t d t` d` c J\ k g q G\ >\  ?
Fricative p\ B f v T D s z S Z s` z` C j\ x G X R X\  ?\ H\ <\ h h\
Approximant    B_o    v\    r\    r\`    j    M\
Trill    B\    r    *    R\    *
Tap or Flap    *    *    4    r`    *
Lateral Fricative K K\ *    *    *   
Lateral Approximant    l    l`    L    L\
Lateral Flap    l\    *    *    *
  • Ny Lakroa (†)  dia maneho ireo eva AAI izay vao nampiana tamin'ny Unicode. Nanomboka tamin'ny volana Aprily 2008 dia nitranga ho an'ny fanononana AAI ny kopaky ny nify sy molotra: Labiodental flap (Gentium).svg Ny eva manokana ho an'ny kopaky ny nify sy ny molotra dia mbola tsy misy amin'ny X-SAMPA.
Miara-tononina
W Fanakaikezan'ny lanilany tsy misy feo ovain'ny molotra
w Fanakaikezan'ny lanilany misy feo ovain'ny molotra
H Tsoka terena aorian'ny lanilany tsy misy feo
s\ Tsoka terena aorian'ny lanilany tsy misy feo
z\ Tsoka terena aorian'ny lanilany tsy misy feo
x\ Tsoka terena amin'ny lanilany
Affricates ary avo roa heny articulation
ts
dz
tS
dZ
ts\
dz\
tK
kp
gb
Nm
Fônôlôjia (tsy pulmonic)
Potsitra Implosives Ejectives
O\ Bilabial b_< Bilabial _> Ohatra:
|\ Laminal alveolar ("nify") d_< Alveolar p_> Bilabial
ǃ\ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_< Palatal t_> Alveolar
=\ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") g_< Velar k_> Velar
|\|\ Lateral coronal ("lateral") G\_< Uvular s_> Alveolar fricative

Zanatsoratra[hanova | hanova ny fango]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
1 • }
M • u
I • Y
I\ • U\
• U
e • 2
@\ • 8
7 • o
@
E • 9
3 • 3\
V • O
{ •
6
a • &
A • Q
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open

Jereo koa[hanova | hanova ny fango]

  • Iraisam-pirenena Phonetic Abidy (TENY)
  • Kirshenbaum sy WorldBet, rafitra mitovy
  • Lisitry ny lohahevitra momba ny rafi-peo
  • SAMPA, teny-manokana nodimbiasan'i X-SAMPA.

Tsiahy[hanova | hanova ny fango]





  1. Hadisoan-tsiahy: Balise <ref> incorrecte ; aucun texte n’a été fourni pour les références nommées SAMPA-PDF.