Labiera

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Hanketo: Fikarohana, karohy
Labiera
Orga malita alohan'ny andrahoana

Ny labiera dia ny zava-pisotro misy alkola mety ho antitra indrindra.[1][2][3][4] Zava-pisotro misy alkola be mpisotro indrindra[5] ary mahazo ny laharana fahatelo eo amin’ny zava-pisotro rehetra (aorian’ny rano sy dite) ny labiera.[6]

Izy dia novokarina avy amin’ny fanotrihana karazana serealy, orga malita (orga efa mitsiry dia hamaina amin’ny rivotra mafana), nefa misy ihany koa mampiasa varim-bazaha, ary katsaka, sy vary. Ny tsiro mampiavaka ny labiera dia avy amin’ny hobolona, ilay fangaro mampisy tsiro mangidy ary miaro ny labiera mba tsy ho simba. Indraidray ny mpamoakatra manisy ahitra manitra na voankazo amin’ny labiera mba hanome tsiro samihafa.

Isany ny soratra voalahany nataon’ny olombelona fahagola tamin’izany ny tsiahy momba ny famokarana sy fiparitahan’ny labiera : ohatra anatin’ny Fehezandalàn’i Hammorabi misy lalàna mifehy ny labiera sy ny fivarotam-dabiera.[7] Ny “Hiran’i Ninkasi” dia vavaka ho an’i andriamanitravavin’ny labiera Mesopotamia ary nampatsiaro ny fangaro sy ny fomba famokarana labiera ireo olona ireo, satria tamin’izany fotoana izany, vitsy ny olona mahay mamaky teny ka niteraka voaka-tsoa ho azy ireo izany vavaka izany.[8][9] Ankehetriny, ny famokarana labiera dia lasa bizina globaly, izany hoe misy orinasa vitsivitsy isakin’ny firenena midominina eo amin’ny tsena, nefa ankoatra ireny, misy ihany koa orinasa kely amandrivony mamokatra labiera ho an’ny tsena rezionaly sy anatiny.

Ny taha ny alkola misy ao amin’ny labiera dia eo anelanelan’ny 4% hatramin’ny 6%, kanefa misy ihany latsaka ny 1% ary mety hihaotra ny 20% ny tahan’ny alkola ao anatiny.

Labiera ihany koa dia isan’ny karazana kolon-tsaina ho an’ny firenena tia misotro azy ary voasokajy ho isan’ny vakoka ara-tsosialy toy ny fetin’ny labiera, ankoatra izany dia manan-danja kokoa amin’ny olona sasany ny fandehanany any amin’ny toeran-pisotroina, sns.

Tantara[hanova | modifier le wikitexte]

Ny famokarana labiera tany Ejipta
Hobolona

Anisany zava-pisotro vitan’olombelona voalohany indrindra ny labiera. Tamin’ny Taonam-bato (9500 TJK – 3000 TJK) no nanomboka namokatra azy sy namboly varimbazaha ny tany Ejipta sy Mesopotamia. Ny mpikaroka momba ny tantaran’ny olombelona fahiny mieritreritra fa nampirisika ny fiforonan’ny sivilizasiona ny labiera.[10]

Ny porofo simika voalohany dia tamin’ny taona 3500-3100 TJK tao amin’ny tendrombohitry Zagros tany Iran (ohatra : ny Hiran’i Ninkasi).[11] Hita tamin’ny 1972 tany Ebla, Siria ny « Takelabato Ebla ». Manazava ireto takelabato ireto fa namokatra karazana labiera maromaro ny mponin’i Ebla, nisy ihany koa ny karazara labiera antsoina hoe « Ebla » izay nalaina tamin’ny anaran’ny tanana.[12] Nisy labiera vita avy amin’ny vary koa tany Sina tamin’ny taona 7000 TJK.[13] Ity labiera vita avy amin’ny vary ity dia tsy nampiasa leviora (toy ny sake) fa nampiasa vary malita (mitovy amin’ny labiera) tamin’ny fanotrehana azy.

Ny zavatra misy karbohidraty, ohatra siramamy na kanzy, dia afaka hanaovana zava-pisotro mitovitovy amin’ny labiera. Betsaka ny sivilizasiona nitady manokana amin’ny fomba fanaovana labiera kanefa matetika samihafa ny serealy ampiasaina, ohatra ampemba amin’ny labiera afrikana, katsaka amin’ny amerikana, sns. Nitondra labiera tany Eoropa ny fokonolona Alemaina sy Seltika teo ho eo amin’ny taona 3000 TJK.[14] Miavaka amin’ny labiera ankehetriny ity labiera fahagola eoropeana ity. Ankoatran’ny serealy, dia nampiasa voankazo, tantely, sy karazana zavamaniry manitra maromaro ireto mpamokatra eoropeana fahagola ireto. Tsy nampiasa hobolona izy ireo raha tsy tamin’ny taona 822 TrJK (tao aorian’i Jesoa Kristy) izay nosoratan’i Carolingian Abbot voalohany momba ny fampiasana hobolona.[15]

Tamin’ny taona 1516, namboarin’i William IV, andriana avy amin’ny Bavaria, ny Reinheitsgebot (lalan’ny fahadiovana), lalana mikasika’ny kalitaon’ny labiera, ary araka ilay izy, ny fangaron’ny labiera dia ny rano, ny hobolona ary ny orga malita.[16] Talohan’ny Revolisiona Indostria dia kely ny vokatra labiera kanefa tamin’ny taon-jato faha-19 nisolo famokarana ara-indostria ny famokarana ara-taozavatra.[17] Nanatsara ny kalitaon’ny labiera ny famoronana tondromaripana sy ny tondrorano (“hydromètre" amin’ny teny frantsay) ka nahay nifehy be kokoa ny fizotran’ny famokarana ny mpamokatra.

Ankehetriny, ny famokarana labiera dia lasa bizina globaly, izany hoe misy orinasa vitsivitsy isakin’ny firenena midominina eo amin’ny tsena, nefa ankoatra ireny, misy ihany koa orinasa kely amandrivony mamokatra labiera ho an’ny tsena rezionaly sy anatiny.[18] Tamin’ny taona 2006, mihoatra 1.33 hetsy tapitrisa (133.000.000.000) litatra ny labiera lafo, amin’ny mirasanda $2.95 hetsy tapitrisa dolara amerikana.[19]

Famokaran’ny labiera[hanova | modifier le wikitexte]

Famokarana ara-taozavatra tamin’ny taon-jato faha-16

Ny tanjon’ny famokaran’ny labiera dia manova kanzy mba ho lasa vorta (“wort” amin’ny teny anglisy) ary, amin’ny fanotrehana azy miaraka amin’ny leviora manova indray ny vorta mba ho tonga labiera.

Soritsary maneho ny fizotrin’ny famokarana labiera
Koveta Rano Mafana
Mpamotsipotsika
Malita
Hobolona
Varahina
Hopback
Fanampiana
Leviora
amin’ny
Fanotrehana
Fanovan-
kafanana
Famenoan-tavoahangy
Barika

Ny dingana voalohany dia antsoina hoe famotsipotsiahana : ny fiharoan’ny kanzy (matetika orga malita) sy rano mafana. Maharitra iray hatrimin’ny adiny roa ny famotsipotsihana, ary mandritra ity fozitra ity, miova lasa siramamy ny kanzy. Rehefa vita izay dia manasaraka ny rano mamy (ny vorta) sy ny orga, ary miezaka manasa ny orga sisa mba hanesorana ny vorta rehetra ny mpamokatra. Angonina daholo ny vorta dia alefa ao anaty vilany Varahina (varahina no anarany satria matetika vita amin’ny varahina ireto vilany ireto) ary ampangotrahina mandritra ny adiny iray miaraka amin’ny hobolona. Ny antony hampangotrahina azy dia mba hanala ny rano kely sy handrava ny anzima misy ary hampivoaka ny hanitri’ny hobolona.

Rehefa vita ny fampagotrahana ny vorta misy hanitri’ny hobolona dia mampangatsiatsiaka azy. Raha toa ka ilaina indray ny hanampiana ny hanitri’ny hobolona dia hampidirina ao amin’ny “hopback” ny labiera, matetika anefa dia afindra mivantana ao amin’ny fanotrehana. Amin’ny fanotrehana dia manampy leviora ny mpanamboatra. Maharitra herinandro hatrimin’ny volana maromaro ny fanotrehana, arakaraka ny leviora sy ny tahan’ny alkola. Mandritran’ny fanotrehana, manova siramamy mba ho lasa alkola ny leviora ary lasa mangarahara ny labiera satria mipetraka ao ambany ny potika akora madinika.[20] Rehefa voaotrika tsara ny labiera dia atao ao anaty tavoahangy na koveta viraty amin’izay.

Tsiahy[hanova | modifier le wikitexte]

  1. Rudgley, Richard (1993). The Alchemy of Culture: Intoxicants in Society. London: British Museum Press;.
  2. Arnold, John P (2005). Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. Cleveland, Ohio: Reprint Edition by BeerBooks.
  3. Joshua J. Mark (2011). Beer. Ancient History Encyclopedia.
  4. (2009-10-06) World's Best Beers: One Thousand ... – Google Books. books.google.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-07.
  5. Volume of World Beer Production. European Beer Guide. Retrieved on 17 October 2006.
  6. Nelson, Max (2005). The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved on 2010-09-21.
  7. Beer Before Bread. Alaska Science Forum #1039, Carla Helfferich. Retrieved on 13 May 2008.
  8. Nin-kasi: Mesopotamian Goddess of Beer. Matrifocus 2006, Johanna Stuckey. Retrieved on 13 May 2008.
  9. Black, Jeremy A.; Cunningham, Graham; Robson, Eleanor (2004). The literature of ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. "Archeologists Link Rise of Civilization and Beer's Invention – Tech Talk – CBS News". www.cbsnews.com. 8 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. https://archive.is/9QKq. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  11. "Jar in Iranian Ruins Betrays Beer Drinkers of 3500 B.C. – New York Times". www.nytimes.com. 5 November 1992. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/05/world/jar-in-iranian-ruins-betrays-beer-drinkers-of-3500-bc.html. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  12. Dumper; Stanley, 2007, p.141.
  13. Li Wine: The Beer of Ancient China -China Beer Festivals 2009. www.echinacities.com: (July 15, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-09-21.
  14. Prehistoric brewing: the true story. Archaeo News: (22 October 2001). Retrieved on 2010-09-21.
  15. Google Books Richard W. Unger, Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance pp57, University of Pennsylvania Press ( 2004), ISBN 0-8122-3795-1
  16. "492 Years of Good Beer: Germans Toast the Anniversary of Their Beer Purity Law". Der Spiegel April 23, 2008.
  17. Cornell, Martyn (2003). Beer: The Story of the Pint. Headline.
  18. Industry Browser — Consumer Non-Cyclical — Beverages (Alcoholic) – Company List. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved on 5 November 2007.
  19. Beer: Global Industry Guide. Research and Markets. Retrieved on 5 November 2007.
  20. beer-brewing.com Ted Goldammer, The Brewers Handbook, Chapter 13 – Beer Fermentation, Apex Pub (1 January 2000), ISBN 0-9675212-0-3. Retrieved 29 September 2008 Archived Oktobra 27, 2007 at the Wayback Machine